Story Package

Millions of people use Instagram each day to broadcast their everyday life. But it’s not just a platform for social interaction — brands and Instagram celebrities are using Instagram for monetary gain, and most Instagram users are completely unaware.

Most likely, your smartphone alarm woke you up this morning. You turned it off sleepily and began your morning routine: check your emails, the news headlines, your Instagram, Facebook and Twitter feeds. When you got out of bed your smartphone wasn’t left behind. It’s connected to you the whole day, right until you set the alarm and do a final check of your feeds.

For most people, it’s hard to imagine life without smartphones. They are integral to peoples’ lives and world, and it’s easy for overlook the dependency on these devices until they are forgotten at home one day, or the battery prematurely runs out. People communicate ideas, meaning and feelings to the world through our smartphones by taking words and images and sharing them with others. Social media platforms exist in order to facilitate this sharing. Instagram, one of the world’s leading social media platforms, has become the primary stage for communicating through images. And its community continues to grow.

Naturally, brands and advertising firms have turned to this ever popular social media platform to promote products. It’s no longer effective for brands to stay offline. If a brand wants to reach consumers and get past the competition, they have to head to where the consumers are: online. With imagery being the key element to advertising’s success, brands have turned to image-based Instagram.

In order to promote their image and products, brands are aligning with popular Instagram users, or ‘Insta-celebrities’. These personalities — generally models and fashion bloggers — are paid by brands to feature their product in their photos, hence advertising directly to their thousands of followers. The partnership is more than not kept concealed.

This reciprocal relationship between brands and online personalities highlights the stark changes in media and advertising due to the popularity of Instagram. It also raises questions regarding covert advertising: Is it ethical that this partnership is concealed? Should consumers be kept aware of product placement?

Read the following stories to find out more.


Instagram: a Place Where Brands and Insta-celebrities Play

Juliette Steen

Instagram launched in October 2010 and has quickly become one of the biggest social media platforms, along with Facebook, Twitter and Tumblr. After only two months after its launch, Instagram’s community of users was already one million. Since then, it has quickly gone from an iPhone-only app to a massive social network with over 200 million active users worldwide and with 70% of users logging in every day.

It’s no surprise that brands and marketing businesses have begun to harness the image-based social media platform. Beginning Boutique, a Brisbane-based online fashion store, is one brand that has used Instagram in order to promote their products and connect with customers. Their Instagram account has 259,000 followers and acts as a place for customers to keep up with the latest products and offers.

Beginning Boutique's Instagram account

Beginning Boutique’s Instagram account (Image: @beginningboutique)

A Beginning Boutique Instagram post promoting a product and sale

A Beginning Boutique Instagram post promoting a product and sale (Image: @beginningboutique)


Beginning Boutique marketing manager Greer Alston explains that the reason they choose to use Instagram to promote their products is due to its popularity, especially among young people. “Everyone is on Instagram, so if we are there, then we are relevant,” she says. Social media expert Nicholas Carah reiterates this notion, saying that brands like Beginning Boutique are increasingly moving to Instagram because “brands go anywhere where there’s attention”.

Among this stylish, young user-base are ‘Insta-celebrities’ — commonly models and bloggers. Australian model Renee Somerfield is an Insta-celebrity and has a cult following of over 620,000 followers. Through making her life and world visible, Renee extends her work into Instagram and attracts the attention of brands that subsequently want to promote their own products through her Instagram.

Renee explains that brands began to contact her about paid Instagram posts when she hit 80,000 followers. Beginning Boutique is one brand who have established and maintained a paid partnership with Renee. “Renee started modelling for us and the reaction we got from our social media followers was really positive, so we then decided to work with her social media accounts,” Greer Alston says.

“It works out to be mutually beneficial for both of us. She promotes us to her followers and we then re-post her image and promote her to our followers. So both parties are growing.”

Renee Somerfield's Instagram account

Renee Somerfield’s Instagram account (Image: @reneesomerfield)

A paid Instagram post Renee Somerfield by featuring a Beginning Boutique product

A paid Instagram post Renee Somerfield by featuring a Beginning Boutique product (Image: @reneesomerfield)

This reciprocal relationship between brands and Insta-celebrities is more often than not kept concealed, which raises potential ethical questions. Carah explains that although it’s more ethical to declare the kinds of relationships Insta-celebrities have with brands, it’s not strictly unethical to conceal them:

“Legally, people don’t have to declare that they are promoting on behalf of the brand. But you could say it raises ethical questions about the extent to which people should declare the kinds of relationships they have with brands. We certainly expect it of our politicians when they make statements in public … but I don’t think we’re at the point where we can expect these Insta-celebrities to do the same.”

Instagram user Hannah Kelly, however, has a different opinion. “I used to follow Tuula but got sick of how her posts were basically just ads,” she says. Hannah explains that she understands that following an Insta-celebrity comes with integrated advertising but that the Insta-celebrity should declare paid posts. “I think it’s wrong when every post just shows off an expensive Lover dress or whatever — especially when they don’t say they were paid for it but it’s obvious that they were.” Another Instagram user, Ryan West, is indifferent. “I follow a few people with tons of followers …  yeah, they do post photos of brands’ products but I’m not too bothered,” he says. “I follow them because I find their photos and lifestyle or whatever interesting, so a few sneaky ads isn’t too bad.” When asked whether Renee thinks it’s fair for her followers to consume these advertised products, especially when they are unaware of the partnership, she explained:

“I choose to work with brands that I actually do believe in, and I only choose to post products that I actually like. I would never post anything that I don’t believe in, or that I don’t like, or I wouldn’t want my followers to go out and buy or purchase.”

When it comes down to it, brands and models need to make money and harnessing the increasingly popular Instagram is a major way to do this in today’s social media-driven society. Greer Alston admits that advertising on Instagram is also primarily about value for money. “The price you pay for someone to be wearing your product is much less than you would pay for it to appear in a magazine,” Alston says. “And it reaches a greater audience.”

Turning Instagram Selfies Into Six-figure Salaries

Chloe Clark

Renee Somerfield (@reneesomerfield) is leading the pack of Australian models and bloggers who have turned their social media accounts into big businesses. The Sydney beach bum and vegan has a growing Instagram popularity of over 600,000 followers and has turned her social media account into a business, where brands pay for mentions and she earns up to $1000 every time she updates her Instagram feed.

Loving Tan, an Australian self-tanning company, is one of the many brands that have worked with Renee to secure their product in her Instagram feed. Loving Tan public relations coordinator Rebecca Evans reveals that targeting the most influential Instagrammers, such as beauty bloggers and fashion bloggers, is much more valuable than traditional advertisements and gives your brand exposure that money can’t buy.

“We all know that social referral from a friend or someone you trust is so valuable and paying these girls to promote our product to their audience is much more beneficial than spending money on traditional media.”

Social media expert Nicolas Carah agrees that the seamless way personalities work branded content into their everyday lives and news feeds is what makes this new form or marketing, or more-so public relations, invaluable.

“It’s almost as though [Instagram] images are a little momentos out of someone’s life … there’s something quite personal about that”.

The March issue of The Australian Women’s Weekly exposed the rise of this successful yet deceiving business model. An ‘Instagram rate card’ card by Sydney PR agency Sweaty Betty revealed exactly how much some of the top ‘Insta-famous’ accounts are charging for plugs on their social media platforms. Antoinette Marie, more famously known as Sydney Fashion Blogger, topped the list with a rate of $850 + GST to post a client mention on her Instagram account. Other personal style bloggers who can be assumed to be earning six-figure salaries include Gary Pepper’s Nicole Warne, Tuula’s Jessica Stein who are both approaching 1 million followers.


The Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) have begun to notice and investigate the business practices undertaken by these Instagram personalities. The ACCC have released new guidelines recommending transparency for all commercial relationships in the social media world.  New rules around disclosure and online product reviews state:

“Incentives should only be offered in exchange for reviews of your business if “the incentive is prominently disclosed to users who rely on affected reviews”.

Several Instagrammers have started crediting some of their posts as advertorials; however, many of those who appear on the Ministry Of Talent Rate Card do not disclose that their posts are paid for.

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Nancy Hartley, executive creative director of a leading advertising agency, sees the vast benefits of social media advertising but warns that it doesn’t come without drawbacks: “If you put a foot wrong you can gain negative publicity just as rapidly”.

Renee is all too aware of the backlash that comes with representing other brands. As a vegan she ensures to only work with cruelty-free brands. She has, however, fallen victim to working with brands that don’t respect her beliefs, and her fans are always quick to point this out. “I recently starred in a nationally broadcast television ad for a beverage company and of course I did my research into this brand to ensure that they were vegan and cruelty free. However, after posting the video to my Instagram feed I was bombarded with comments from angry followers telling me that the brand actually tests their products on animals,” explains Renee. After a lot of damage control explaining to followers that she was not aware of these practices and having to delete and block users, Renee has since learned the risks that come with promoting other brands. “From time to time I get caught up with people that have an issue with a brand and take it out on me and my Instagram because I am posting about them, but I have learnt to ignore this and let the brand deal with their customers,” says Renee.

Screen Shot 2014-05-24 at 4.04.01 pm

Screen Shot 2014-05-24 at 4.04.10 pm @reneesomerfiled receiving negative comments on a post on her Instagram sponsored by @beginningboutique

Popular Instagrammers are reaping the rewards of being paid big bucks to give up a post in their feed to those who are willing to fork out the cash, and see this new business model as a natural progression in marketing due to technology advances. Brands engaging in this new form of marketing are reaching greater audiences, making more sales and staying relevant.

Remaining Relevant: Marketing and the Social Media

Natasha Rothnagel

Increasingly, brands and marketing businesses are using Instagram to promote their image and products. But it doesn’t work like regular advertising. Instagram contains no advertising model and runs off a user-driven infrastructure, making it so unlike traditional media. Brands and marketing businesses have therefore had to adapt to the platform. The advertising and media industry is one that constantly changing and adapting in order to always be appealing to their targeted audience.

The main reason for such changes is due primarily to the continual advances made in technology that constantly shift where a consumer is acquiring their information. Particularly now, social media and mobile applications have become the most effective way for marketers to engage with users because smartphones have become so intertwined in the everyday life of individuals.

Listen below to some young university students describing how they use their smart phones and what for, giving a good example of how technology has become embedded in our culture. Nancy Hartley, the executive creative director of Clemenger BBDO, which is one of the leading advertising agencies on a global spectrum, has seen firsthand the changes in which technology and social media has shifted how advertisers market to their audience. Nancy has been involved in the advertising industry for thirty years and has worked on a number of very effective marketing campaigns.

Having been part of the advertising business for so long, Nancy has experienced firsthand the progressive changes in marketing and how technology is a big part of it. She says:

“Technology has always been the catalyst for change. First came the printing press, then years later radio, years later again television. Advertisers had to learn how best to utilise each new medium,” she says. “Technology advances by the minute, so we are now in a state of constant change.”

A reflection from statistics report taken at the end of 2013 of how relevant and popular social media platforms have become for marketers (information retrieved from

A reflection from statistics report taken at the end of 2013 of how relevant and popular social media platforms have become for marketers (information retrieved from

More recently, Nancy was a part of the “Best Job” advertising campaign which had great international success and was one of the first to use social media. “We were given a budget of $1.2M to create international awareness of the Islands of the Great Barrier Reef. $1.2M is a very small budget to gain worldwide attention, so we had to think of a clever way to make people take notice,” Nancy says. “We came up with the idea of ‘The Best Job in the World’ – Island Caretaker – complete with a pay packet of $150,000 for six months. Anyone could apply. We knew it was such compelling idea that media outlets around the world would pick up on the story and run it as news. Everything drove to the campaign website, where people could apply by uploading a 60 second application video. The applications got more and more impressive and the applicants themselves used their own social networks to gain votes and attention.” Nowadays, it has become a necessity for marketers to utilise the internet and social media platforms in new and innovative ways in order to gain the interest of their audience. This means that the most popular social sites such as Facebook and now Instagram have become pivotal to some businesses to promote their brands and remain relevant.

A look into how immense the popularity for Instagram has become, making it the perfect platform for marketers to utilise (information from:

A look into how immense the popularity for Instagram has become, making it the perfect platform for marketers to utilise (information from:

Instagram has skyrocketed in popularity among smart phone users, and advertisers are well aware that incorporating their brands onto such a personal platform creates a sense of relationship between the consumer and business. Social media expert Nicholas Carah puts forth: “Instagram is the coming together of a bunch of technologies. It makes images a really important part of everyday life. It’s almost as though [Instagram] images are little momentos out of someone’s life … there’s something quite personal about that.”  So has using social networking platforms improved the advertising industry for the better? Nancy believes it has. “Definitely for the better,” she insists.

“It’s just another channel with which to communicate. And it’s not controlled by the advertiser, it’s controlled by the customer. One of my favourite ‘marketing’ sayings is actually a Chinese proverb: ‘Tell me and I’ll forget. Show me and I’ll remember. Involve me and I’ll understand.’ Social media allows people to get involved.”


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Related post — Breaking it down: understanding Insta-branding, Insta-celebrities and why we’re so interested in them

Portfolio of Evidence




Our project aims to explore how and why businesses and social media personalities are using social media (namely, Instagram) as the primary means to promote their products and brands. We also aim to provide an understanding of how the  landscape of marketing is changing in order to adapt to the popularity of social media.


We seek to investigate this story by looking at three angles:

  1.     The marketing/advertising perspective
  • How big Brisbane businesses are using their Instagram accounts to promote their products/brand.
  • The ways in which they tap into the popular platform and sponsor popular Instagram personalities.
  • Why they deem Instagram as a valuable tool for advertising.
  • How they manage their product reviews so consumers are not being misled.
  • How the marketing landscape is changing to adapt to social media.


  1.     The ‘Instagram personality’ perspective
  • How popular Instagram users are being sponsored by businesses (i.e. being sent free products and/or being paid to feature a product) in order to promote brands.
  • Why they believe this is beneficial for them and for promoting their own brand.
  • Why they think it’s right to not be transparent regarding the partnership and to inconspicuously advertise to their followers.


  1.     The consumer perspective
  • Are Instagram users/consumers aware of the business partnerships taking place or does the advertising appear ‘natural’. And if so, does this embedded advertising make it more effective.
  • What ethical questions does this raise regarding legitimate advertising.
  • How many Instagram users are aware of the advertising and within that, why do they care/why don’t they care.


Why this story?

Due to the popularity and constantly changing nature of social media (and in turn the marketing landscape), we believe it’s important to unpack how businesses use Instagram to adapt to consumers’ increasing online activity and importantly, how this effects social media users/consumers. We aim to explore the benefits and drawbacks that using Instagram to advertise has for businesses, as well as for the Instagram personalities who commonly align with these businesses for their own monetary gain.


What we have found


Current Legislation

The Australian Consumer and Competition Commission (ACCC) have released new rules around disclosure and online product reviews.

The ACCC states “Businesses and review platforms need to manage online reviews to prevent consumers from being mislead”. This puts the onus on the businesses engaging in the product placements. The ACCC defines review platforms as “sites which specialize in presenting product reviews about a range of businesses”. Instagram is an online photo-sharing and video-sharing social networking service, not a specialized product review platform. It is therefore not their responsibility to monitor these product reviews.

The ACCC states “Incentives should only be offered in exchange for reviews of your business if “the incentive is prominently disclosed to users who rely on affected reviews”. Several Instagrammers have started crediting some of their posts as advertorials (Appendix 1 & 2). Ministry Of Talent, a creative talent management agency released a Rate Card (Appendix 3) for their clients with Sydney Fashion Blogger charging $850 per Instagram post (Appendix 4), although she does not disclose that these posts are paid.


Primary Research

To obtain a a solid foundation of our topic and a greater understanding of social media marketing, we conducted academic article- and internet-based research in which we found information revealing various aspects of advertising, consumerism and product and brand promotion through the use of social media platforms (Appendix 7).

Through this research we have conceded that the emergence and popularity of social media has made for a significant shift in the media industry to the way in which marketing and advertising companies promote their brands. Our findings demonstrate that the traditional methods of communication between a business and a consumer is not as effective in the digital age. Consumers have turned to social media as being a trustworthy source to acquire information on particular products/brands/services they are interested in.

Social media plays a significant role in promotion by creating a place that companies can interact with their customers and, by doing so, gain feedback on their products and promotion. By utilising social media platforms (such as Instagram and Facebook), customers can engage with the business on a 24/7 basis. This makes it easier for businesses to spin their advertisement in new and innovative ways that they know will appeal to their selected audience. As such, marketing managers now have access to a whole new promotional outlet that allows them to advertise their brands to consumers in a manner that disguises the corporate-sponsored side.


Preliminary Interview

A brief interview with Instagram personality Renee Somerfield (Appendix 5) gave insight into how she turned her Instagram account into a business and whether she thinks it’s fair for her followers to consume these advertised products when they are unaware of the sponsorship.


What we plan to do


Qualitative research methods —


Proposed interviews

1. An interview with social media expert Nic Carah will provide an insight into the increasing power and popularity of social media, and why businesses and Instagram personalities are capitalising on this.


2. Further interviews with 2 more popular Instagrammers (one who does disclose whether they are paid/sponsored for the product placement and one who does not) will provide a broader understanding of how Instagram personalities use social media as a business.


3. Interviews with two big Brisbane businesses (Beginning Boutique [Appendix 6] and Loving Tan) that pay popular Instagrammers for product placement will provide a business insight into the story.


4. Interviews with Instagram users who follow these Instagram personalities will determine whether they are aware of the business partnership and open ethical questions regarding covert advertising.


5. An interview with Nancy Hartley, the executive creative director of leading advertising agency Clemenger BBDO, will provide an insight into how advertising and the marketing landscape has changed and adapted to utilise social media.


Instagram screen shots will give examples of covert and transparent business partnerships by popular Instagram personalities (Appendices 1, 2 & 4).


Academic research articles (Appendix 7) will provide further understanding of advertising and marketing, and the influences that social media has on the field, particularly in relation to promoting consumer products.


Quantitative research methods —


Instagram statistics will provide a profile of the three Instagram personalities investigated. The analysis includes:

  • Likes per sponsored Instagram post vs. likes per non-sponsored Instagram post
  • Number of followers of popular Instagrammers




Appendix 1


Ella Ferguson of blog They All Hate Us disclosing that her post is an advertorial for Misha Collection


Appendix 2


Tully Smyth, former Big Brother contestant, disclosing that her post is an advertorial for Babe Scrub


Appendix 3


Creative Talent Management agency, Ministry Of Talent Rate Card for Instagram posts


Appendix 4


Sydney Fashion Blogger posting in Misha Collection, however not disclosing that this is a paid post.


Appendix 5

Renee Somerfield Interview

Q. When did you realise that you could turn your social media into a business?

A. I started to notice at about 80,000 followers when brands started to contact me and show a little bit more interest.

Q. Do you think you could make a living purely from sponsored social media posts?

A. I do. I think a lot of people can earn money off social media posts. I mean, I think it’s the new way of marketing, and I think people are paying big Instagrammers or big Facebookers instead of PR companies.

Q. How do you maintain your own brand, whilst promoting others?

A. I maintain my own brand by always being selective with who I choose to work with, and just making sure that they coincide with what I believe in.

Q. What skills do you think are needed to manage yourself as a business, and do you think you need tertiary education to learn these?

A. I think you just have to have confidence, I think you’ve got to have initiative and I mean, I didn’t go my full highschool term and I didn’t study anything, and I have run my own business pretty much for the last 5 years.

Q. Do you think it’s fair for your followers to consume these advertised products when they are unaware of the sponsorship.

A. I choose to work with brands that I actually do believe it, and I only choose to post products that I actually like. I would never post anything that I don’t believe in, or that I don’t like, or I wouldn’t want my followers to go out and buy or purchase.


Appendix 6


A paid post by Beginning Boutique of Renee Somerfield wearing their clothing.


Appendix 7

A summary of background research on social media and advertising

  • ‘Integrated marketing communications’ is the guide organisations follow to communicate with their target markets
  • Attempts to control the various elements of the promotional mix (i.e. advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and direct marketing) produce a unified customer focused message
  • The tools and strategies for communicating with customers have changed significantly with the emergence of social media
  • This form of media describes a variety of new sources of online information that are created, initiated, circulated and used by consumers intent on educating each other about products and brands
  • Many marketing managers lack a full appreciation for social media’s role in the company’s promotional efforts
  • The first role of promotional social media: companies use social media to talk to their customers
  • The second role: customers can communicate with each other on their satisfaction or lack thereof for a particular product or brand
  • In traditional communications the elements of promotional mix is by the organisation in collaboration with paid agents. The flow of information is generally confined to face-to-face and word-of-mouth among individual consumers, which has minimal impact on the dynamics of the market place due to its limited dissemination
  • In the era of social media, marketing managers control over the content, timing and frequency of information is being severely eroded
  • Various social media platforms (many of which are completely independent of the producing/sponsoring organisation) magnify consumers ability to communicate with one another
  • This has bestowed consumers with power they have not previously experienced in the marketplace and marketing managers should recognise the impact of the social media space
  • The internet has become a mass media vehicle for consumer-sponsored communications: consumers are turning away from the traditional sources of advertising (radio, television, magazines and newspapers) and are demanding more control over their media consumption; consumers are turning more to various types of social media to conduct their info searches and make purchasing decisions; social media is perceived by consumers as a more trustworthy source of information compared to corporate-sponsored communications
  • Managers must learn to talk with their customers as opposed to talking at them
  • Must provide networking platforms
  • Use blogs and other social media
  • They should use both traditional and internet based promotional tools to engage the customers – people are more likely to communicate through social media and word of mouth when they are engaged with the product, service or idea
  • Provide information – consumers will more likely talk about companies and products when they feel they know a lot about them
  • Need to be outrageous and also provide exclusivity
  • Products and services should be designed with talking points in mind to stimulate word of mouth and social media based conversations
  • Support causes that are important to consumers
  • By including social media in the promotion mix, these new  communication formats are given a home in standard marketing management practices and theories
  • This home for social media provides managers with a better understanding of social media and a framework for incorporating it into their advertising strategies

Social media: The new hybrid element of the promotion mix (W. Glynn Mangold, David J. Faulds) Business Horizons 2009, 52, 357-365

  • The issue of Facebook advertising and marketing began making news in late 2012
  • The definition of advertising and marketing communications clearly and without ambiguity applies to any material or activities that is within the control of an advertiser and that draws the attention of the public in a manner to promote or oppose a product/service/organisations

  • Social media gives businesses a direct way to interact with existing and potential customers and promote their products and services
  • Businesses using social media channels like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram have a responsibility to ensure content on their pages is accurate
  • Marketers must ensure they do not make any false or misleading claims as part of their marketing and promotional activities. The same laws that apply to any other marketing or sales channel apply to social media as well
  • The company can be held responsible for posts or public comments made by others on their social media pages which are false of likely to mislead consumers
  • Managing marketers should not make statements on social media that they wouldn’t make in any other type of advertising
  • Businesses should keep in mind that social media operates 24/7 and as such should monitor social media pages depending on the size of the company and how many followers they have

  • (p2) Social media is global and allows users to stay connected with people geographically separated
  • (p2) this global connectivity extends to positive and negative messages relating to products and services
  • (p2) since a persons opinion is in digital format it is less likely to be misunderstood or diluted over time
  • (p13) today, 80% of all companies use social media tools to recruit
  • (ix) companies properly engaging digitally with their customers and clients have already seen the power and the payoff
  • (x) companies are adjusting their marketing budget to include digital and social media to a significant extent

Socialnomics: How Social Media Transforms the Way We Live and Do Business (By Erik Qualman) 2013, Published by John Wiley and Sons, INC

  • The way consumers digest information has drastically changed
  • Traditionally, ads were primarily used on tv or radio or magazines and targeted to a broad range of different consumers in an attempt to raise brand awareness
  • These methods are no longer viable with the expanding digital world
  • Consumers today are more tech-savvy and more in control or what advertisements or info they consume daily
  • With social media, customers have the ability to interact with businesses in a way that was previously not possible and give opinions and responses to brands and marketing techniques
  • Web connected consumers are more aware they can decide whether or not they will view ads in many media forms
  • Younger consumers who have been brought up in the digital age do not necessarily consider advertisement to be mandatory to their media experiences making it more
  • Advertising in the digital age uses range of social media platforms to get the advertisers message across
  • Multiple channels need to be used simultaneously to get as much viewership as possible
  • Broadcasting an advertisement on television that is also integrated with social media and other channels can increase the likelihood or interest and response to the advertisement
  • Combining messages across multiple platforms to gain interest in products is becoming more common
  • Advertisers need to learn how to use consumers interest and response to their advantage
  • Engaging consumers with products and brands in a new and innovative way to catch the attention of customers and keep them focused
  • Customers who are able to interact with brands spend more time focused on the advertisement as opposed to the traditional methods where they can abandon advertisement at the touch of a button